How Should International Purposeful Availment Grow with the Internet?

Courts have used internet activity to find personal jurisdiction in the United States.  Many of these cases have relied on either the Zippo test from Zippo Manufacturing Co. v. Zippo Dot Com, Inc or the Calder test from Calder v. Jones.  The Zippo test applies a sliding scale where a court looks at the interactivity versus passivity of a website to find purposeful availment and is considered to be the main standard in internet jurisdiction Continue Reading →