Bluebook Citation of Internet Sources

The following is reprinted from The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (19th ed. 2010).

18.2.2 Direct Citation to Internet Sources

An Internet source may be cited directly when it does not exist in a traditional printed format or when a traditional printed source, such as a letter or unpublished dissertation, exists but cannot be found or is so obscure that it is practically unavailable. All efforts should be made to cite to the most stable electronic location available. The Internet citation should include information designed to facilitate the clearest path of access t the cited reference, including the title, pagination, and publication date as they appear on the webpage. The Internet URL should be separated by a comma and appended to the end of the citation (that is, not preceded by “available at” or “at“).

The following is information provided by STLR

  • An example of a citation to a STLR source formatted according to the bluebook is:

Andrew Riley & Jonathan Stroud, Trade Secrets at the International Trade Commission: A Survey, 15 Colum. Sci. & Tech. L. Rev. 41 (2013),

  • Use Colum. Sci. & Tech. L. Rev. as the abbreviation for Columbia Science and Technology Law Review.
  • STLR provides and maintains a robust permalink system ensuring that its entire catalog can be reliably linked to with the URLs provided at the date of publication, regardless of changes to the website. Note that these permalinks will differ from the URL that appears in your browser.

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